Shiva Bahrami; Faramarz Tutti; Mohammad Ali Barghi; Majid Purmoghadam
Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz) consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic ...
Green tuffs of middle Eocene age in Hesarbon area, south west of Firoozkuh (East of Central Alborz) consist of a thick sequence of lithic-, crystal-,vitric-and calcareous-tuffs. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction studies show plagioclase (albite and oligoclase), alkali feldspar (sanidine), quartz, cristobalite, biotite and hornblende are the major minerals in the rocks studied. Secondary minerals such as analcime, chlorite, prehnite and clay minerals are mainly present in the groundmass of the rocks. Extensive tectonic activities have created a variety of structural features including numerous folds and faults and therefore, have caused the green tuffs to be crushed and converted to breccia tuffs in many parts. Veins and cavities are filled by considerable amounts of zeolitic minerals including heulandite group, clinoptilolite and natrolite along with calcite and secondary quartz. Based on geochemical data, they lie on the dacite and rhyodacite field showing a calc-alkaline nature in the corresponding diagrams. According to the chondrite and primitive mantle normalized diagrams of trace elements, negative anomalies of Eu, Nb, Ti, P and depletion of HFSE together with their position in the petrogenesis discrimination diagrams, it is most likely that these rocks are formed in the active continental margin of a subduction zone. The existence of analcime and prehnite in the groundmass demonstrate that these rocks have undergone some degrees of low-grade metamorphism due to the overburden of the layers in the temperature range 200-300 °C. The present study shows that zeolite minerals filling the fractures and cavities of tuffs are precipitated by hydrothermal fluids with a neutral pH to acidic